Hard X-ray Extended Absorption Fine Structure (HX-EXAFS, 5~27 keV)
Interpretation of XAS
Figure 1 displays K-edge XANES of manganese oxides, highlighting a clear link between the oxidation state and edge position. As the oxidation state rises, the absorption edge moves to a higher energy level. Utilizing a more advanced analytical method involves fitting with a linear combination of established references to ascertain the relative contributions of mixed systems. Conversely, determining the oxidation state, or its alteration, usually involves observing a shift in the primary absorption edge.
Zimmermann P, Peredkov S, Abdala PM, DeBeer S, Tromp M, Müller C, et al. Modern X-ray spectroscopy: XAS and XES in the laboratory. Coord Chem Rev 2020;423:213466. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.ccr.2020.213466.
In this study, Li et al. have utilized extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis to investigate the coordination structure of Nd 0.1 RuO x , as illustrated in Figure 2f . The findings reveal that Nd 0.1 RuO x exhibits a slightly longer Ru-Ru distance (2.87 Å) compared to RuO 2 (2.81 Å) and Ru foil (2.67 Å). This elongation is attributed to lattice expansion resulting from the disparity in ionic radii between Ru and Nd. Additionally, the relative intensity of the Ru-Ru bond in Nd 0.1 RuO x is lower than that in RuO 2 , a factor expected to mitigate structural changes during catalytic processes.
Li L, Zhang G, Xu J, He H, Wang B, Yang Z, et al. Optimizing the Electronic Structure of Ruthenium Oxide by Neodymium Doping for Enhanced Acidic Oxygen Evolution Catalysis. Adv Funct Mater 2023;33:1–9. https ://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202213304.
To understand how Pb 13 O 8 (OH) 6 (NO 3 ) 4 interacts with ZIF-8 in the newly formed nanocomposites, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) were utilized . The XANES spectra revealed that the X-ray absorption of Pb in 10% Pb-ZIF-8 is similar to Pb foil, PbO, and PbO 2 , but it's closest to PbO, indicating that the valence state of Pb in Pb - ZIF -8 is almost +2 (see Figure 3a). The main peak at 1.6 Å in EXAFS is due to the Pb-O/N scattering path. Also, Pb-Pb coordination was observed (see Figure 3b ), suggesting there's a bit of Pb clustering in 10% Pb-ZIF-8. To get more detailed information, a technique called wavelet transform (WT) of EXAFS spectra was used, which helped combine information from backscattering atoms, R-space, and k-space in three dimensions (refer to Figure 3c,d ).
Zeng L, Huang X, Le Y, Zhou X, Zheng W, Brabec CJ, et al. Reversible Growth of Halide Perovskites via Lead Oxide Hydroxide Nitrates Anchored Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Information Encryption and Decryption. ACS Nano 2023;17:4483–94 . https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c10170.
Energy Storage Materials
In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) demonstrated that when lithium is added, Nb 5+ changes to Nb 4+ . The oxidation state continuously changes during lithiation, as seen in Figure 4b . The extended X-ray absorption fine structure ( EXAFS) reveals a two-stage insertion reaction ( Figure 4c ). Initially, Nb 2 O 5 bond lengths merge at 1.75 Å, indicating increased symmetry due to lithiation. Lithiation is faster at lower Li+ levels, likely due to more available sites. At lower potentials, the new EXAFS peak shifts to longer bond distances (1.85 Å) because of increased Li-O interactions. These findings highlight the importance of an open, layered structure for rapid ion transport in the active material. This study establishes that T- Nb 2 O 5 behaves like a pseudocapacitive material, even though charge storage happens throughout the bulk.
Augustyn, V.; Come, J.; Lowe, MA; Kim, JW; Taberna, PL; Tolbert, SH; Abruña, HD; Simon, P.; Dunn, B. High-Rate Electrochemical Energy Storage through Li+ Intercalation Pseudocapacitance. Nat. Mater. 2013, 12 (6), 518–522. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat3601.
- Prepare a small zip bag and label it with the sample order number and sample elements
- Put your powder inside the zip bag
- Cover the zip bag with a piece of paper
- Place the zip bag inside a vacuum sealed bag
- Place it inside another large zip bag and label it with the sample order number, target element wt% and other elements wt%